Sustainable Agricultural Practices Curated best practices from across India

MethodsTitle of the ITK Description of the ITK Key wordsGeographical areaName and address of the discloser/facilitatorImages if any
2765Rain Water ManagementSplashing of water to arecanut treesRain water is collected in the pit, dug in the ground between four trees in the arecanut plantation. This collected water is splashed on the tree using a device, made of cashewnut-tree trunk. This is commonly seen in the entire plantation fields in Goa. arecanut, splashed, rain water, trunkGoaShri Mangala Kalidas Sawaikar, Tamsuli, Ponda, North Goa (Goa) 403 107
2766Rain Water ManagementCollection of water by making channelWater from higher altitudes is col- lected through channels. This water is brought to the collection centre at a lower altitude by gravity, which is used for irrigating agricultural fields.altitude, gravity, rain water, irrigationGoaShri Sanjay Anant Patil, Savaiverem, Shilwada, Ponda, North Goa (Goa) 403 401
2767Rain Water ManagementBandh made of mud and stoneThe check dam called nalla is made of mud and stone. This structure is called bandh, which is used to conserve rain water. The collected rain water is chanellized and diverted for irrigating the fields.bandh, nalla, irrigationGoaMs Nilima Nachinolkar, C/o Sandeep Gawas, Porye, Sattan, North Goa (Goa) 403 505
2768Rain Water ManagementWater lifting using latRain water is collected in ponds, pits and small pools. This water is utilized for irrigating vegetable garden. At the time of irrigation, a device called lat is used.
This device is a combination of bamboo poles, which is tied to a strong rock-like stone or cut portion of the tree bark. It is kept horizontally, and to fill up water, a small pot of either plastic or a steel bucket or bended steel is tied at the tip of one pole with the pulley attached to it. The process is similar to that of drawing water from the well using pulley and bucket. After the process, the water pours through the channel. If the garden or land is a little bigger, the water is again collected in pits dug in the field, and it is splashed manually by two persons standing opposite to each other
lat, splash, bamboo pole, bucketGoaMs Nilima Nachinolkar, C/o Sandeep Gawas, Ranewad, Parye Sattari, North Goa (Goa) 403 505
2769Rain Water ManagementRain-water harvesting and moisture conservation by mehandi (Lawsonia alba) through tillage practisesMehandi (Lawsonia alba) is very popular among the ladies of Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh, and among the Muslim ladies of most of the states of India. Mehandi is also used for organic or natural dyes.
Farmers of entire Sojat belt of Pali district in Rajasthan are cultivating it for using in rain water harvesting and moisture conservation practises in soil since the last 20-25 years. Broadly this technique is grouped under two systems:
1. Pre-transplanting: In this, the soil is ploughed to a depth of 30-35 cm so that the maximum rain water percolates in the soil profile. Broad bunds of good height are erected around the field to ensure storage of rain water in the field itself. After preparing the bund, thorns are put on it or it is covered with thorny materials to prevent damage by animals. The entire field is divided into small fragments of 1,000-1,250 sq feet, with provision of a bund of 1-11/2 feet height, locally called math.
2. Past-transplanting: In this method, deep earthing is adopted for preserving the rain water and moisture in the standing mehandi. It preserves rain water in the soil and provides good aeration to roots. With such practices the farmers are able to harvest good crop of mehandi. The practices are: (a) Deep ploughing is done between the rows in the first year, and some farmers continue this practice for many years. Deep ploughing helps in retaining rain water in the soil and in better root development.
(b) After every rainfall, soil is given good tilth with khurpi, which is repeated in August- September till the crop remains dwarf. In well-grown crop it is stopped so that the new twigs are not damaged.
mehandi, rain water harvesting, moisture conservation, bunds, math, pre-transplanting, post- transplanting, khurpiRajasthanShri Purshotan Sharma and Shri Khem Raj, C/o Shri Gajendra Mehado Udyog, Sojat, Pali (Rajasthan)
2770Soil and Water Conservation Planting of cashew on hill slopes to conserve soil and waterIn the hilly slopes, cashew trees are planted in contour lines to conserve soil and water. Paddy is grown in low lands and in the medium land coconut and arecanut are planted. This practice was introduced by the Portuguese.coconut, arecanut, low land, medium landGoaShri Satish Padwalkar, Goteli no.2, Keri Sattari, North Goa (Goa) 403 505
2771Soil and Water Conservation Planting of pineapple to check soil and water erosionPlanting of pineapple in the hilly slope generally practised to control soil and water erosion. It also gives good yield with the available water. This is grown as mixed crop under irrigated conditions. Locally grown pineapple gives fruits of smaller size which are very sweet. This type of practice is common in central Goa. pineapple, erosion, mixed croppingGoaShri Pandurang Majgeankar, Old Goa, Keri Tiswadi, North Goa (Goa) 403 402
2772Soil and Water Conservation Soil conservation through combination of sarpat grass (Saccharum arundinaceum) and Acacia indica L.Farmers of Sonapur, Sewta and Hamirpur of Azamgarh district in Uttar Pradesh face the problem of gully erosion due to high undulated land and water seepage, which is a big problem for paddy growers in light soils. Farmers plant (root slips) suckers of sarpat grass at a distance of 3-4 feet in the last week of June. Between these suckers the seeds of Acacia indica (babool) are sown. Sarpat grass belongs to family Gramineae. It reaches a height of 7-8 feet. Its root system is very dense. Farmers select the seeds of Acacia indica from the dung of goat, because the seeds that pass through the intestine of cattle etc., give about 80% germination. Farmers consider that intestinal juice of goats breaks the dormancy of Acacia indica seeds.
Fresh seeds of babool, used for sowing show very poor germination. The dense roots of sarpat grass hold the soil firmly against run-off and the canopy of babool acts as an umbrella to decrease splash erosion. When the rainy season is over, sarpat grass is harvested and sold in market by making bundles. Small branches of Acacia indica are harvested for fuel and agricultural implements is prepared when the plants become 3-4 years-old.
paddy, sarpat, babool, canopy, bundleArunachal PradeshDr Ranjay K. Singh, Assistant Professor (Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology), College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat (Arunachal Pradesh) 791 102
2773Soil and Water Conservation Indigenous methods of soil and water conservationLemongrass and broomgrass are planted on slopy lands. Lemongrass is sold in market and broomgrass is used for preparing huts and houses.
Pineapple and rambans are planted in the border of kitchen garden to avoid soil losses, which also act as a fence. At river bank, where paddy is taken, farmers plant arecanut tress on borders. Bamboo and banana plants are also planted on slopy or undulating lands.
rambans, pineapple, areanut, lemongrass, banana, bambooArunachal PradeshDr Ranjay K Singh, Assistant Professor (Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology), College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat (Arunachal Pradesh) 791 102
2774Soil and Water Conservation Indigenous methods of soil and water conservation under rainfed agro-ecosystemTo conserve soil and water, the tribal people of Kohka, Ghanaghat and Sarhari villages of Dindori district in Madhya Pradesh follow this practice. Most of the fileds are near to forest areas or under uneven topographical situations. In the upper streams, terraces and channels are constructed. Around all sides of soil beds, channels are constructed with an outlet at outer side of the terrace. Soil erosion is checked by growing perennial grass like moa along the border. Ploughing and sowing across the slope as well as fallowing of land are found to be an effective technology to conserve soil and water. Gular, jamun, ber, aonla, babool etc. are also planted around the bunds to conserve soil and water.terraces, channels, moa,
Arunachal PradeshDr Ranjay K Singh, Assistant Professor (Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology). College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat (Arunachal Pradesh) 791 102
2775Soil and Water Conservation Soil conservation by planting bananaPeople of lower Himachal Pradesh plant banana because (i) it is a source of cash, (ii) its root system is quite extensive, which helps hold a big chunk of soil, and (iii) its broad big leaves reduce the force of the monsoon rain-drops. Thus rain-drops cannot hit the soil directly, which reduces hazards of splash erosionbanana, soil erosion, splash erosionHimachal PradeshPeople of lower parts of Himachal Pradesh Facilitator: Dr L R Verma MRDA, 4 Summon Hill Shimla
(Himachal Pradesh) 171 005
2776Soil and Water Conservation Stabilization of sand dunes and checking of soil erosion by using kair as a live fenceThe farmers of Jhunjhunu and Nagore districts in Rajasthan grow kair (Capparis decidua) plant on borders of fields to prevent shifting of sand and entry of wild animals in the field. Kair is a desert plant that can grow under extreme hot and dry conditions. Its leaves are small, acute, spinous and pointed. The tree has a big canopy and the roots hold the soil to prevent soil erosion. Canopy reduces the velocity of the storms or hot winds (loo). Fruits of kair are rich in nutritive value.
Unripe green fruits are used as vegetable and also for making pickles. Its bark has medicinal properties such as analgesic, diaphoretic, laxative, anthelminthic, which cures cough and asthma, ulcers and boils. It is useful in vomiting and piles. The fruit stops foul breath, biliousness and discharges of urinary bladder. The fresh young leaves are crushed and soaked in water. This extract is filtered, and butter is added to this extract in small quantity, which gives relief from pain of bruises after a fall.
kair, storm, pickle, loo, medicinal propertyArunachal PradeshDr Dheeraj Singh, Asst. Professor (Pomology) and Dr Ranjay K. Singh, Assistant Professor (Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology), College of Horticulture and forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat (Arunachal Pradesh) 791 102
2777Tillage and Intercultural Management Ploughing by samkor method for rabi and kharif sowing Samkor an indigenous crop cultivation practiceFarmers of Jhadol area of Udaipur district in Rajasthan follow samkor method of ploughing. The farmers plough the field with desi plough and start ploughing from one corner of the field to inner side while keeping the ploughed field in their right hand side. In this practice heavy ploughing is done up to a depth of 1-1 1/2 feet, and every corner is ploughed. It is considered good for moisture conservation in kharif, and for crop growth in rabi. Farmers take maize in kharif and wheat in rabi samkor method, field ploughing,
maize, wheat
RajasthanShri Shanti Lai, S/o Shri Roopji Brahmin, Jhadol (Rajasthan); and Shri Shanti Lai Parmar, Kantharia, Jhadol (Rajasthan)
2778Crops and Cropping Systems Cultivation of indigenous paddy variety Dheka under lowland ecosystemAadi tribes of Pasighat block in Arunachal Pradesh cultivate local paddy variety named Dheka, which is planted in lowland where water availability is high. The plant height is about 2 feet and the colour of the grains is whitish red. Nursery is prepared and it is looked after up to 40 days. In fields, puddling is performed and 7-8 seedlings are transplanted in one hill. This variety is found to be more resistant to insect and pests and contains more amount of gluten, which is a prime requirement of local tribe. To avoid any insect incidence, they spread Pummelo (Citrus decumana) fruit bark in the field. During the milky stage, wood ash is sprayed to prevent the housefly attack, which is thought to suck the sap of grains. To meet the nutrient requirement of the crop, rice bran, plant leaves and organic residues from the forest are decomposed in the pit and then broadcast in the field.
Dheka, Pummelo, wood ash, manureArunachal PradeshDr Ranjay K. Singh, Assistant Professor (Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology), College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat (Arunachal Pradesh) 791 102
2779Crops and Cropping SystemsCultivation of indigenous paddy variety Boga Kolony in uplandsAadi tribals of Pasighat block in Arunachal Pradesh grow a local paddy variety Boga Kolony in the uplands as rainfed crop, where water availability is low. The plant height is 2.5 feet and the colour of grains is whitish yellow. This is sown mixed with pearlmillet and maize. The field is ploughed by using L-shaped blade. Dibbling method is used for sowing the seeds, but nowadays few people are using desi plough. After germination, farm women do the weeding. This variety is resistant to insects and pests. To avoid any occurrence of insect pests, farmers spread the pummelo fruit bark and hang dead crab on bamboo poles.
During the milky stage, wood ash is sprayed to prevent the housefly attack.
Bhoga Kolony, upland, pummelo fruit bark, crab, wood ashArunachal PradeshDr Ranjay K. Singh, Assistant Professor (Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology), College of Horticulture and Forestry, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat (Arunachal Pradesh) 791 102
2780Use of coconut water and buttermilk mixture to increase the number of flowers in crop plantsA mixture of coconut water and buttermilk is used to increase the number of flowers in paddy, groundnut, millets and banana. A mixture of 5 litres coconut (Cocos nucifera) water, and 5 litres buttermilk is taken and this solution is kept in a mud pot. This pot is buried in the soil for 5 to 7 days. After that 1 litre solution is mixed with 10 litres water. This solution is ready to spray, which helps to increase number of flowers in the crops.coconut water, buttermilk, flowersTamil NaduShri C. Bhakkiyanadhan, S/o Shri Chandrasekaran, Nettavelampatty,
(via Thuraiyur Taluk), Tiruchirapalli (Tamil Nadu) 621 003
2781Cultivation of rice Bailu Nalla Budda Vaddlu (black variety)This variety of rice gives good yield in black soils and can also be raised in dubba and red chalka soils of Telangana. It comes to maturity in 120 days, and yields 1.2 tonne/ha grain and 8 cartloads fodder/ha. Starch can be prepared by cooking the grain, which is good for lactating mothers.Bailu Nalla Budda Vaddlu, dubba, lactating mothers, starchTelanganaDeccan Development Society, Pasthapur, Zaheerabad (M), Medak (Andhra Pradesh)
2782Cultivation of Bailu Erra Vadlu (red variety) riceThis crop can be raised in all types of soils, and it comes to maturity within 120 days. Two good rains are required to get its successful yield. On an average, it can give 1.5 tonne grain and 8 cartloads fodder per hectare. The grains form a nutritious diet for lactating mothers.Bailu Erra Vadlu, lactating mothers, fodderTelanganaDeccan Development Society, Pasthapur, Zaheerabad (M), Medak (Andhra Pradesh)


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